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Antibiotics refer to secondary metabolites generated by fungi, bacteria or other microorganisms in the course of life that have anti-pathogen or other activities. Antibiotics are drugs that can inhibit or kill other microorganisms (bacteria/fungi/virus/parasites, etc.) at low concentrations. They have low toxicity, high safety, and can be directly applied to the human body.
Classification of Antibiotics
The method of manufacturing antibiotics varies according to the type of antibiotics. Antibiotics are generally extracted from the culture fluid of microorganisms or manufactured by synthetic or semi-synthetic methods.
The classifications are as follows:
1. Antibacterial antibiotics
Depending on the chemical structure, anti-bacterial antibiotics include:
- β-lactams: penicillins (such as amoxicillin), cephalosporins (such as cefradine), carbapenems (such as imipenem), monocyclic β-lactams (such as aztreonam), Β-lactamase inhibitors (such as sulbactam), etc.
- Aminoglycosides: including tobramycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, etc.
- Tetracyclines: including oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, etc.
- Macrolides: Including erythromycin, clarithromycin, middynecin, etc.
- Chloramphenicol: including chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, etc.
- Lincomycins: including lincomycin, clindamycin, etc.
- Other antibacterial antibiotics: such as vancomycin, polymyxin, rifampin.
2. Antifungal antibiotics: including griseofulvin, amphotericin B, etc.
3. Antituberculosis antibiotics
4. Anti-tumor antibiotics: including mitomycin, actinomycin D, bleomycin, etc.
5. Immunosuppressive antibiotics: such as cyclosporine.
In addition, according to the scope of antibacterial (antibacterial spectrum), antibiotics can be divided into broad-spectrum antibiotics and narrow-spectrum antibiotics. Broad-spectrum antibiotics have inhibitory effects on most G+ bacteria, G- bacteria, certain chlamydia, mycoplasma and protozoa, such as tetracyclines and chloramphenicols. Narrow-spectrum antibiotics merely have antibacterial effects on a single species or genus of bacteria.
Reaction Mechanism of Antibiotics
Different antibiotics have different mechanisms of action on microorganisms. Generally speaking, antibiotics mainly have three mechanisms of action: inhibit the synthesis of cell walls, inhibit the synthesis of proteins, and inhibit the replication of genetic information.
Application of Antibiotics
Antibiotics can control more than 95% of diseases caused by bacterial infections. Therefore, antibiotics are extensively used in the prevention and treatment of poultry, livestock, crops and other diseases, and have now become the main drugs for the treatment of infectious diseases. In addition to anti-bacterial infection treatment, antibiotics can also be used for anti-fungal, anti-tumor and immunosuppressive aspects. In addition, antibiotics are also used in food preservation, such as tetracycline used in meat preservation.