|Product Name / CAS / Description
Ganciclovir is an antiviral drug for feline herpesvirus type-1 with IC50 of 5.2 μM.
Megalomicins are a family of macrolide antibiotics produced by the soil bacterium Micromonospora megalomicea. They exhibit antiparasitic, antiviral and antibacterial activity, and are effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
Foscarnet Sodium inhibits viral RNA polymerases, reverse transcriptases and DNA polymerases by non-competitive inhibition of dNTPs. It is an antiviral agent used in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. It has activity against human herpesviruses and HIV.
Foscarnet is a pyrophosphate analog DNA polymerase inhibitor that has activity against several viruses, but is primarily used to treat CMV retinitis. Because it can cross the blood-brain barrier, it can be used to treat viral infections of the central nervous system.
Foscarnet Sodium Hexahydrate is an antiviral drug used in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. It has inhibitory effect on viral DNA polymerase and reverse transcriptase.
Plitidepsin is a cyclic depsipeptide isolated from the marine tunicate Aplidium albicans. Plitidepsin shows potent anticancer activity against a large variety of cultured human cancer cells, inducing apoptosis by triggering mitochondrial cytochrome c release, initiating the Fas/DC95, JNK pathway and activating caspase 3 activation. This agent also inhibits elongation factor 1-a, thereby interfering with protein synthesis, and induces G1 arrest and G2 blockade, thereby inhibiting tumor cell growth.
Favipiravir, also known as T-705 or Avigan, is an experimental antiviral drug being developed by Toyama Chemical of Japan with activity against many RNA viruses. Like some other experimental antiviral drugs (T-1105 and T-1106), it is a pyrazinecarboxamide derivative. Favipiravir is active against influenza viruses, West Nile virus, yellow fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus as well as other flaviviruses, arenaviruses, bunyaviruses and alphaviruses. Activity against enteroviruses and Rift Valley fever virus has also been demonstrated.
BOC Sciences' comprehensive product portfolio includes antiviral compounds, from intermediates to APIs. We also offer a full range of services from fermentation to synthesis to customize the desired products.
Fermented Bioactive Metabolites as Antivirals
In an era marked by the constant threat of viral infections, the search for effective antiviral agents has never been more critical. Fermentation is a time-honored process in which microorganisms transform organic compounds into various metabolites. Some of these metabolites possess remarkable antiviral properties. Some antiviral compounds are primarily obtained through chemical synthesis or isolation from natural sources. Fermentation can be used to produce antiviral compounds from microorganisms or as a part of downstream processing for the concentration or extraction of antiviral compounds from natural sources. In addition, a combination of fermentation and chemical synthesis, also known as semi-synthesis, is an important means of producing antiviral agents.
Classification of Fermented Antiviral Compounds
Some fermented compounds act as protease inhibitors, interfering with the viral protease enzymes essential for viral replication. For instance, protease inhibitors derived from fungal fermentation have shown potential against HIV.
Fermented compounds can stimulate the production of interferons, which are signaling proteins involved in the immune response against viral infections. These inducers can be valuable in antiviral therapies.
- Virus Entry Inhibitors
Fermentation can produce molecules that mimic sialic acid, a component found on the surface of host cells. By binding to viral hemagglutinin, these mimetics can block viral entry.
Antiviral Compounds Produced by Fermentation
- Echinocandins: Echinocandins are a class of antifungal drugs with promising antiviral activity. Although initially designed to combat fungal infections, recent research has uncovered their potential to inhibit certain enveloped viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus (hMPV).
- Polysaccharides: Certain polysaccharides produced through fermentation, such as β-glucans, have demonstrated immunomodulatory properties. They can enhance the host's immune response against viral infections, potentially reducing the severity and duration of illness.
Antiviral Compounds Produced by Semi-Synthesis
Some of antiviral agents are synthesized or isolated through semi-synthetic processes, which involve a combination of chemical synthesis and extraction from natural sources.
- Ganciclovir: Ganciclovir is synthesized through a chemical process. It is derived from acyclovir, another antiviral drug. The synthesis involves several chemical reactions to modify the acyclovir molecule and create ganciclovir. While the starting material may be obtained from natural sources or synthesized, the final compound itself is created through chemical reactions.
- Megalomicin: Megalomicins are produced by the soil bacterium Micromonospora megalomicea through microbial fermentation. However, to obtain purified megalomicins for pharmaceutical use, semi-synthetic processes are often employed. This involves isolating the crude extract from the fermentation, purifying the megalomicins, and potentially modifying them chemically to enhance their stability or efficacy.
- Plitidepsin: Plitidepsin is a cyclic depsipeptide isolated from the marine tunicate Aplidium albicans. The compound is initially extracted from the natural source. However, semi-synthetic processes may be used to obtain pure plitidepsin or modify its structure for specific therapeutic purposes.
Microorganisms Used to Produce Antiviral Agents
- Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB): LAB produces antiviral peptides and bioactive metabolites during fermentation.
- Monascus Fungi: Monascus species are filamentous fungi used in the fermentation of rice and other grains. They produce secondary metabolites like monacolins, which have potential antiviral activity.
- Yeast Strains: Certain yeast strains can produce compounds with antiviral properties, including Resveratrol, known for its potential against herpes simplex virus (HSV).