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Enzyme inhibitors are a class of substances that can specific binding to certain groups of enzymes and decrease their activity. By reducing or completely losing enzymes activity related to certain diseases in the organism, enzyme inhibitors can be used as related drugs to obtain curative effects.
Classification of Enzyme Inhibitors
Currently, as many as hundreds of enzyme inhibitors have been discovered.
- According to chemical properties
- According to inhibitor type
- According to the disease being treated
- According to the mechanism of action with enzymes
Enzyme inhibitors can be divided into inorganic compounds (such as heavy metal salts, chlorides, fluorides, phosphates, etc.) and organic compounds (such as isobutyric acid, urea derivatives, paraformaldehyde, etc.).
Enzyme inhibitors can be divided into oxidoreductase inhibitors, transferase inhibitors, hydrolase inhibitors, lyase inhibitors, isomerase inhibitors and synthetase inhibitors.
Enzyme inhibitors include anti-tumor enzyme inhibitors, anti-HIV enzyme inhibitors, anti-inflammatory enzyme inhibitors, anti-thrombotic enzyme inhibitors and so on.
Enzyme inhibitors can be divided into irreversible and reversible.
Source of Enzyme Inhibitors
Enzyme inhibitors are mainly derived from plants, microorganisms and chemical synthesis. The primary metabolites and secondary metabolites of microorganisms are able to produce enzyme inhibitors. Actinomycetes are the group of microorganisms that produce the most enzyme inhibitors. Bacteria and fungi are also crucial microbial sources of enzyme inhibitors. In addition to the traditional screening and isolation of medicinal bacteria, researchers have focused their attention on a variety of new microbial groups, such as marine microbes and extreme microbes. Plants are the main source of new drugs for enzyme inhibitors.
Application of Enzyme Inhibitors
Enzyme inhibitors are vital to organisms. In animals and plants, there are biological macromolecular enzyme inhibitors related to human biological regulation. In industrial production, the quality of fermented products can be improved by inhibiting metabolic regulation enzymes. Enzyme inhibitors are widely used in agricultural production, medicine and military fields. Certain enzyme inhibitors could be taken as serve as herbicides or insecticides. Enzyme inhibitors could also be available for clinical applications. Lots of drugs and poisons related to diseases are enzyme inhibitors.