1.Involvement of PI3K/Akt, ERK and p38 signaling pathways in emodin-mediated extrinsic and intrinsic human hepatoblastoma cell apoptosis.
Cui Y1, Lu P1, Song G1, Liu Q1, Zhu D1, Liu X2. Food Chem Toxicol. 2016 Mar 23;92:26-37. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2016.03.013. [Epub ahead of print]
As a natural anthraquinone derivative, 1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone, known as emodin, has recently been reported to possess potential chemopreventive capacity, but the underlying molecular mechanism of its hepatocyte toxicity remains poorly clarified. The present research indicated that emodin targeted HepG2 cells without being cytotoxic to primary human hepatocyte cells in comparison with chrysophanol and rhein. The anti-proliferative effect of emodin was ascribed to occurrence of apoptosis, which characterized by higher ethidium bromide signal, brighter DAPI fluorescence, cleavages of procaspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase as well as quantitative result from Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. Furthermore, emodin improved Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, elicited disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and promoted efflux of cytochrome c to cytosol, indicative of features of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signals. Emodin concurrently led to activations of Fas, Fas-L, caspase-8 and tBid, which provoked death receptor apoptotic signals.
2.Aloe-emodin-mediated photodynamic therapy induces autophagy and apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cell line MG‑63 through the ROS/JNK signaling pathway.
Tu P1, Huang Q1, Ou Y1, Du X1, Li K1, Tao Y1, Yin H1. Oncol Rep. 2016 Mar 24. doi: 10.3892/or.2016.4703. [Epub ahead of print]
The present study was carried out to investigate the effect and mechanisms of aloe‑emodin (AE)-mediated photodynamic therapy (AE-PDT) on the human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63. After treatment with AE-PDT, the human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 was tested for levels of viability, autophagy, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis and changes in cell morphology with the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK‑8), monodansylcadaverine (MDC) and Hoechst staining and transmission electron microscopy. The expression of proteins including LC-3, cleaved caspase-3, Beclin-1, Bcl-2, p-JNK, t-JNK and β-actin was examined with western blotting. AE-PDT significantly inhibited the viability of the MG-63 cells in an AE-concentration- and PDT energy density-dependent manner. Autophagy and apoptosis of MG-63 cells was substantially promoted in the AE-PDT group compared to the control group, the AE alone group and the light emitting diode (LED) alone group. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) (5 mM) and chloroquine (CQ) (15 µM) significantly promoted the apoptosis rate and improved the sensitivity of the MG-63 cells to AE-PDT.
3.IDH2 knockdown sensitizes tumor cells to emodin cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo.
Ku HJ1, Kwon OS1, Kang BS1, Lee DS1, Lee HS1, Park JW1. Free Radic Res. 2016 Apr 17:1-24. [Epub ahead of print]
Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) work as second messengers at sublethal concentrations, higher levels of ROS can kill cancer cells. Since cellular ROS levels are determined by a balance between ROS generation and removal, the combination of ROS generators and the depletion of reducing substances greatly enhance ROS levels. Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methyl anthraquinone), a natural anthraquinone derivative from the root and rhizome of numerous plants, is a ROS generator that induces apoptosis in cancer cells. The major enzyme to generate mitochondrial NADPH is the mitochondrial isoenzyme of NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2). In this report, we demonstrate that IDH2 knockdown effectively enhances emodin-induced apoptosis of mouse melanoma B16F10 cells through the regulation of ROS generation. Our findings suggest that suppression of IDH2 activity results in perturbation of the cellular redox balance and, ultimately, exacerbates emodin-induced apoptotic cell death in B16F10 cells.