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Category Antibiotics
Catalog number BBF-05714
CAS 151499-39-7

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Bafilomycins are a family of macrolide antibiotics isolated from Streptomycetes sp. They exhibits antitumor, antiparasitic, immunosuppressant and antifungal activity.


Antibiotic Activity Spectrum Fungi; Parasites; Neoplastics (Tumor)

Reference Reading

1. Engineering Bafilomycin High-Producers by Manipulating Regulatory and Biosynthetic Genes in the Marine Bacterium Streptomyces lohii
Zhong Li, Shuai Li, Lei Du, Xingwang Zhang, Yuanyuan Jiang, Wenhua Liu, Wei Zhang, Shengying Li Mar Drugs. 2021 Jan 11;19(1):29. doi: 10.3390/md19010029.
Bafilomycin A1 is the representative compound of the plecomacrolide natural product family. This 16-membered ring plecomacrolide has potent antifungal and vacuolar H+-ATPase inhibitory activities. In our previous work, we identified a bafilomycin biosynthetic gene cluster (baf) from the marine bacterium Streptomyces lohii ATCC BAA-1276, wherein a luxR family regulatory gene orf1 and an afsR family regulatory gene bafG were revealed based on bioinformatics analysis. In this study, the positive regulatory roles of orf1 and bafG for bafilomycin biosynthesis are characterized through gene inactivation and overexpression. Compared to the wild-type S. lohii strain, the knockout of either orf1 or bafG completely abolished the production of bafilomycins. The overexpression of orf1 or bafG led to 1.3- and 0.5-fold increased production of bafilomycins, respectively. A genetically engineered S. lohii strain (SLO-08) with orf1 overexpression and inactivation of the biosynthetic genes orf2 and orf3, solely produced bafilomycin A1 with the titer of 535.1 ± 25.0 mg/L in an optimized fermentation medium in shaking flasks. This recombinant strain holds considerable application potential in large-scale production of bafilomycin A1 for new drug development.
2. The proton ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 reduces the release of rhinovirus C and cytokines from primary cultures of human nasal epithelial cells
Mutsuo Yamaya, Xue Deng, Akiko Kikuchi, Mitsuru Sugawara, Natsumi Saito, Toru Kubo, Haruki Momma, Tetsuaki Kawase, Kazuyuki Nakagome, Yoshitaka Shimotai, Hidekazu Nishimura Virus Res. 2021 Oct 15;304:198548. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198548. Epub 2021 Aug 21.
Rhinovirus species C (RV-C) causes more severe asthma attacks than other rhinovirus species. However, the modulation of RV-C replication by drugs has not been well studied. Primary human nasal epithelial (HNE) cells cultured on filter membranes with air-liquid interface methods were infected with RV-C03, and the levels of RV-C03 RNA collected from the airway surface liquid (ASL) of HNE cells were measured with a SYBR Green assay. Pretreatment of HNE cells with the specific vacuolar H+-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 reduced the RV-C03 RNA levels in the ASL; inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8, in the supernatant; the mRNA expression of the RV-C receptor cadherin-related family member 3 (CDHR3) in the cells; and the number of acidic endosomes where RV-B RNA enters the cytoplasm. The levels of RV-C03 RNA in the ASL obtained from HNE cells with the CDHR3 rs6967,330 G/A genotype tended to be higher than those obtained from HNE cells with the G/G genotype. Pretreatment with the Na+/H+ exchanger inhibitor ethyl-isopropyl amiloride or either of the macrolides clarithromycin or EM900 also reduced RV-C03 RNA levels in the ASL and the number of acidic endosomes in HNE cells. In addition, significant levels of RV-A16, RV-B14 and RV-C25 RNA were detected in the ASL, and bafilomycin A1 also decreased the RV-C25 RNA levels. These findings suggest that bafilomycin A1 may reduce the release of RV-Cs and inflammatory cytokines from human airway epithelial cells. RV-Cs may be sensitive to drugs, including bafilomycin A1, that increase endosomal pH, and CDHR3 may mediate virus entry through receptor-mediated endocytosis in human airway epithelial cells.
3. Molecular basis of V-ATPase inhibition by bafilomycin A1
Rong Wang, Jin Wang, Abdirahman Hassan, Chia-Hsueh Lee, Xiao-Song Xie, Xiaochun Li Nat Commun. 2021 Mar 19;12(1):1782. doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-22111-5.
Pharmacological inhibition of vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) by its specific inhibitor can abrogate tumor metastasis, prevent autophagy, and reduce cellular signaling responses. Bafilomycin A1, a member of macrolide antibiotics and an autophagy inhibitor, serves as a specific and potent V-ATPases inhibitor. Although there are many V-ATPase structures reported, the molecular basis of specific inhibitors on V-ATPase remains unknown. Here, we report the cryo-EM structure of bafilomycin A1 bound intact bovine V-ATPase at an overall resolution of 3.6-Å. The structure reveals six bafilomycin A1 molecules bound to the c-ring. One bafilomycin A1 molecule engages with two c subunits and disrupts the interactions between the c-ring and subunit a, thereby preventing proton translocation. Structural and sequence analyses demonstrate that the bafilomycin A1-binding residues are conserved in yeast and mammalian species and the 7'-hydroxyl group of bafilomycin A1 acts as a unique feature recognized by subunit c.

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