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Category Enzyme inhibitors
Catalog number BBF-01471
CAS 59556-18-2
Molecular Weight 139.15
Molecular Formula C7H9NO2

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It is produced by the strain of Streptomyces toyocaensis. Gabaculine inhibits GABA aminotransferase by binding to the enzyme to form Schiff group firstly, and then aromatizing to form m-aminobenzoic acid derivatives.


Related CAS 59556-17-1 (hydrochloride)
Synonyms 3-Amino-2,3-dihydrobenzoic acid; DL-Gabaculine; 5-Amino-1,3-cyclohexadienylcarboxylic acid; 3-Amino-4,6-cyclohexadienecarboxylic acid
IUPAC Name 5-aminocyclohexa-1,3-diene-1-carboxylic acid
Canonical SMILES C1C(C=CC=C1C(=O)O)N
InChI InChI=1S/C7H9NO2/c8-6-3-1-2-5(4-6)7(9)10/h1-3,6H,4,8H2,(H,9,10)


Appearance Amorphous Powder
Boiling Point 304.6°C at 760 mmHg
Melting Point 196-197°C
Density 1.255 g/cm3

Reference Reading

1. Gabaculine alters plastid development and differentially affects abundance of plastid-encoded DPOR and nuclear-encoded GluTR and FLU-like proteins in spruce cotyledons
Viktor Demko, Andrej Pavlovic, Ján Hudák J Plant Physiol. 2010 Jun 15;167(9):693-700. doi: 10.1016/j.jplph.2009.12.008. Epub 2010 Feb 2.
Synthesis of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) represents a rate limiting step in the tetrapyrrole biosynthetic pathway, and is regulated by metabolic feedback control of glutamyl-tRNA reductase (GluTR) activity. The FLU protein has been attributed to this regulation. Later in the biosynthetic pathway, reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), catalyzed by protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR), ensures another important regulatory step in the chlorophyll biosynthesis. In the present work, we investigated the expression and cellular abundance of nuclear-encoded and plastid-encoded proteins involved in ALA synthesis and Pchlide reduction in Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) as a representative of plant species with high ability to synthesize chlorophyll in the dark. Using dark-grown, light/dark-grown and gabaculine-treated seedlings, we demonstrated that gabaculine-impaired etiochloroplast and chloroplast development has no negative effect on GluTR accumulation in the cotyledons. However, in contrast to control plants, the relative amount of GluTR was similar both in the dark-grown and light/dark-grown gabaculine-treated seedlings. We identified a partial sequence of the FLU-like gene in Norway spruce, and using antibodies against the FLU-like protein (FLP), we showed that FLP accumulated mostly in the dark-grown control seedlings and gabaculine-treated seedlings. In contrast to nuclear-encoded GluTR and FLP, accumulation of plastid-encoded light-independent POR (DPOR) was sensitive to gabaculine treatment. The levels of DPOR subunits were substantially lower in the light/dark-grown control seedlings and gabaculine-treated seedlings, although the corresponding genes chlL, chlN and chlB were expressed. Since we analyzed the samples with different plastid types, plastid ultrastructure and physiological parameters like Pchlide and chlorophyll contents, in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic efficiency of the seedlings were characterized. Apart from etiochloroplast-specific accumulation of the DPOR subunits, we described, in some detail, additional specific features of chlorophyll biosynthesis in the spruce seedlings that differ from those known in angiosperms.
2. The indirect γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor agonist gabaculine-induced loss of the righting reflex may inhibit the descending analgesic pathway
Yuya Ogawa, Masahiro Irifune, Akari Mukai, Yoshitaka Shimizu, Mitsuru Doi, Kana Oue, Mitsuhiro Yoshida, Takashi Kanematsu, Norimitsu Morioka, Yoshihiro Nakata, Norio Sakai Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2020 Nov;198:173034. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2020.173034. Epub 2020 Sep 7.
In the spinal cord, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons play an essential role in antinociception. However, not all actions of GABA favor antinociception at the supraspinal level. We previously reported that gabaculine, which increases endogenous GABA in the synaptic clefts, induces loss of the righting reflex (LORR) that is one indicator of hypnosis, but not immobility in response to noxious stimulus. A slow pain is transmitted to the spinal cord via C fibers and evokes substance P (SP) release from their terminals. However, the antinociceptive effects of gabaculine are still unknown. Our study examined whether the analgesic effects of the opioid morphine or the α2-adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine, whose actions are mediated through facilitation of the descending analgesic pathway, are affected by gabaculine-induced LORR. We also explored the effects of GABA receptor agonists on SP release from cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. All drugs were administered systemically to mice. To assess antinociception, loss of nociceptive response (analgesia) and immobility were evaluated. DRG cells were dissected from rats. Gabaculine produced no analgesia. Either morphine or dexmedetomidine in combination with gabaculine induced immobility; however, the doses of each drug required to induce immobility were much higher than those required to induce analgesia. Capsaicin significantly increased SP release from DRG cells, but a high concentration (1 mM) of the GABA receptor agonist muscimol, propofol, gaboxadol, or baclofen did not inhibit the capsaicin-induced SP release, suggesting that their antinociceptive effects were not through this mechanism. Thus, the gabaculine-induced LORR may inhibit the descending analgesic pathway.
3. A mutant Synechococcus gene encoding glutamate 1-semialdehyde aminotransferase confers gabaculine resistance when expressed in tobacco plastids
Michele Bellucci, Francesca De Marchis, Nicoletta Ferradini, Andrea Pompa, Fabio Veronesi, Daniele Rosellini Plant Cell Rep. 2015 Dec;34(12):2127-36. doi: 10.1007/s00299-015-1856-z. Epub 2015 Aug 12.
A mutant glutamate 1-semialdehyde aminotransferase gene from the Synechococcus , inserted into tobacco plastid DNA by means of particle bombardment and antibiotic selection, conferred gabaculine resistance allowing to attain homoplasmy. Many plant species are recalcitrant to plastid genome transformation. New selections systems may help to overcome this limitation and to extend the application of this technology. A mutant hemL gene from the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechococcus, encoding a gabaculine-insensitive glutamate 1-semialdehyde aminotransferase (GSA), is an efficient selectable marker gene for nuclear transformation of tobacco, alfalfa and durum wheat. Since GSA functions in the plastid, we introduced the mutant hemL gene into the tobacco plastid genome along with the conventional antibiotic resistance aadA gene, in the attempt to develop a new selection system for plastome transformation. Although we were unable to directly regenerate gabaculine resistant transplastomic plants, we demonstrated the functionality of hemL in tobacco plastids by using gabaculine selection in the second and third rounds of in vitro selection that permitted to obtain the homoplasmic state in transgenic plants. Thus, the mutant hemL gene functions as a secondary selection marker in tobacco plastids. Our results encourage further attempts to test gabaculine resistant GSA for plastome transformation of crop plants in which gabaculine has stronger regeneration-inhibiting effects with respect to tobacco.

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