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Category Enzyme inhibitors
Catalog number BBF-03597
CAS 108890-90-0
Molecular Weight 547.55
Molecular Formula C29H29N3O8

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K-13 is a noncompetitive inhibitor of angiotensin I converting enzyme from Micromonospora halophytica subsp. exilisia K-13.


Synonyms L-Tyrosine, N-acetyl-L-tyrosyl-L-tyrosyl-3-hydroxy-, cyclic (1-3(sup 3))-ether
IUPAC Name (E)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(Z)-2-acetamido-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoyl]amino]-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propyl]amino]-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoic acid
Canonical SMILES CC(=O)NC(=CC1=CC=C(C=C1)O)C(=O)NC(CC2=CC=C(C=C2)O)CNC(=CC3=CC(=C(C=C3)O)O)C(=O)O
InChI InChI=1S/C29H29N3O8/c1-17(33)31-24(13-19-4-9-23(35)10-5-19)28(38)32-21(12-18-2-7-22(34)8-3-18)16-30-25(29(39)40)14-20-6-11-26(36)27(37)15-20/h2-11,13-15,21,30,34-37H,12,16H2,1H3,(H,31,33)(H,32,38)(H,39,40)/b24-13-,25-14+/t21-/m0/s1


Appearance Colorless Powder
Boiling Point 989.5°C at 760 mmHg
Melting Point 265-270°C
Density 1.423 g/cm3
Solubility Soluble in Methanol, Ethanol and Water

Reference Reading

1. Vegetarian diet and depression scores: A meta-analysis
Sebastian Ocklenburg, Jette Borawski J Affect Disord. 2021 Nov 1;294:813-815. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2021.07.098. Epub 2021 Jul 31.
Background: Several studies have suggested an association between vegetarian diet and higher depression scores. However, some studies have also shown an effect in the opposite direction, indicating lower depression scores in vegetarians. Given this discrepancy in the literature, this meta-analysis was aimed to determine whether there is a significant association between vegetarian diet and depression scores across different published studies. Methods: A keyword search in major databases was conducted. Studies reporting depression scores in vegetarians and a non-vegetarian control group were included. Meta-analysis following a conditional random-effects procedure was conducted in R. Results: After duplicates were removed and studies were analyzed for inclusion criteria, k=13 studies with an overall n of 49889 participants (8057 vegetarians and 41832 non-vegetarian controls) were included in the analysis. Random-effects meta-analysis revealed a significant difference between vegetarians and non-vegetarians, with vegetarians showing higher depression scores than non-vegetarians. Limitations: The heterogeneity between studies was high and geographical variation in study location was low, limiting cross-cultural insights. Conclusions: Vegetarians show higher depression scores than non-vegetarians. However, due to high heterogeneity of published studies, more empirical research is needed before any final conclusions can be drawn. Also, empirical studies from a higher number of different countries would be desirable.
2. Sex differences in neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease dementia: a meta-analysis
Willem S Eikelboom, Michel Pan, Rik Ossenkoppele, Michiel Coesmans, Jennifer R Gatchel, Zahinoor Ismail, Krista L Lanctôt, Corinne E Fischer, Moyra E Mortby, Esther van den Berg, Janne M Papma Alzheimers Res Ther. 2022 Apr 4;14(1):48. doi: 10.1186/s13195-022-00991-z.
Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are common in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia, but substantial heterogeneity exists in the manifestation of NPS. Sex differences may explain this clinical variability. We aimed to investigate the sex differences in the prevalence and severity of NPS in AD dementia. Methods: Literature searches were conducted in Embase, MEDLINE/PubMed, Web of Science Core Collection, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar from inception to February 2021. Study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were conducted in duplicate. Effect sizes were calculated as odds ratios (OR) for NPS prevalence and Hedges' g for NPS severity. Data were pooled using random-effects models. Sources of heterogeneity were examined using meta-regression analyses. Results: Sixty-two studies were eligible representing 21,554 patients (61.2% females). The majority of the included studies had an overall rating of fair quality (71.0%), with ten studies of good quality (16.1%) and eight studies of poor quality (12.9%). There was no sex difference in the presence of any NPS (k = 4, OR = 1.35 [95% confidence interval 0.78, 2.35]) and overall NPS severity (k = 13, g = 0.04 [- 0.04, 0.12]). Regarding specific symptoms, female sex was associated with more prevalent depressive symptoms (k = 20, OR = 1.60 [1.28, 1.98]), psychotic symptoms (general psychosis k = 4, OR = 1.62 [1.12, 2.33]; delusions k = 12, OR = 1.56 [1.28, 1.89]), and aberrant motor behavior (k = 6, OR = 1.47 [1.09, 1.98]). In addition, female sex was related to more severe depressive symptoms (k = 16, g = 0.24 [0.14, 0.34]), delusions (k = 10, g = 0.19 [0.04, 0.34]), and aberrant motor behavior (k = 9, g = 0.17 [0.08, 0.26]), while apathy was more severe among males compared to females (k = 11, g = - 0.10 [- 0.18, - 0.01]). There was no association between sex and the prevalence and severity of agitation, anxiety, disinhibition, eating behavior, euphoria, hallucinations, irritability, and sleep disturbances. Meta-regression analyses revealed no consistent association between the effect sizes across studies and method of NPS assessment and demographic and clinical characteristics. Discussion: Female sex was associated with a higher prevalence and greater severity of several specific NPS, while male sex was associated with more severe apathy. While more research is needed into factors underlying these sex differences, our findings may guide tailored treatment approaches of NPS in AD dementia.
3. Draft genome sequence data of Paenibacillus cisolokensis strain LC2-13A and Xylanibacillus composti strain K-13
Ayaka Uke, Chinda Chhe, Sirilak Baramee, Chakrit Tachaapaikoon, Patthra Pason, Rattiya Waeonukul, Khanok Ratanakhanokchai, Akihiko Kosugi Data Brief. 2021 Sep 8;38:107361. doi: 10.1016/j.dib.2021.107361. eCollection 2021 Oct.
To discover more efficient degradation processes of lignocellulosic biomass, it is still important to analyze genomic and enzymatic data from bacteria that have strong xylanolytic ability. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of the xylanolytic bacteria Paenibacillus cisolokensis strain LC2-13A and Xylanibacillus composti strain K-13 that are closest to Paenibacillus sp. strain DA-C8, which has strong xylan degradation ability under anaerobic growth conditions. Whole-genome sequencing on the Ion GeneStudio S5 System yielded 277 contigs with total size 5,305,208 bp and G+C content 52.3 mol% for strain LC2-13A and 115 contigs with total size 4,652,266 bp and G+C content of 56.2 mol% for strain K-13. The LC2-13A genome had 5,744 protein-coding sequences (CDSs), 57 tRNAs, and 4 clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), and the K-13 genome had 4,388 CDSs, 1 rRNA gene, 45 tRNAs, and 5 CRISPRs. The CDSs of LC2-13A and K-13 encoded the following carbohydrate-active enzymes: 98 and 67 glycoside hydrolases, 31 and 29 glycosyl transferases, 23 and 17 carbohydrate esterases, and 13 and 37 carbohydrate-binding modules, respectively. The whole-genome sequences of LC2-13A and K-13 have been deposited in DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under accession numbers BOVK00000000 and BOVJ00000000. The versions described in this paper are version 1.

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