1. A clinical and biological review of keratoacanthoma
A Tisack, A Fotouhi, C Fidai, B J Friedman, D Ozog, J Veenstra Br J Dermatol. 2021 Sep;185(3):487-498. doi: 10.1111/bjd.20389. Epub 2021 Jun 14.
Keratoacanthoma (KA) is a common skin tumour that remains controversial regarding classification, epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis and management. Classically, a KA manifests as a rapidly growing, well-differentiated, squamoid lesion with a predilection for sun-exposed sites in elderly people and a tendency to spontaneously regress. Historically, KAs have been considered a variant of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) and are often reported as KA-type cSCC. However, the penchant for regression has led many to categorize KAs as biologically benign tumours with distinct pathophysiological mechanisms from malignant cSCC. The clinical and histopathological similarities between KA and cSCC, particularly the well-differentiated variant of cSCC, have made definitive differentiation difficult or impossible in many cases. The ambiguity between entities has led to the general recommendation for surgical excision of KAs to ensure a potentially malignant cSCC is not left untreated. This current standard creates unnecessary surgical morbidity and financial strain for patients, especially the at-risk elderly population. There have been no reports of death from a definitive KA to date, while cSCC has an approximate mortality rate of 1·5%. Reliably distinguishing cSCC from KA would shift management strategies for KAs towards less-invasive treatment modalities, prevent unnecessary surgical morbidity, and likely reduce associated healthcare costs. Herein, we review the pathophysiology and clinical characteristics of KA, and conclude on the balance of current evidence that KA is a benign lesion and distinct from cSCC.
2. The diagnostic value of imaging techniques for keratoacanthoma: A review
Xiujuan Zhang, Jiahong Shi, Zhixia Sun, Ting Dai Medicine (Baltimore). 2022 Dec 30;101(52):e32097. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000032097.
Keratoacanthoma (KA) is a fast-growing skin tumor with solitary KA being the most common type. KAs rarely metastasize and subside spontaneously. Although histopathology is the gold standard for the diagnosis of KA, its histopathological features are sometimes difficult to distinguish from those of other skin tumors. Imaging studies have certain advantages in the preoperative diagnosis of KA; they not only show the exact shape of the lesion but can also accurately determine the extent of the lesion. Combined with histopathological examination, these findings help establish a diagnosis. By summarizing the imaging features of KA, this article aimed to improve radiologists' understanding of the disease and help in the clinical and differential diagnosis of KA.
3. Specific case consideration for implanting TKA with the Kinematic Alignment technique
Charles Rivière, William Jackson, Loïc Villet, Sivan Sivaloganathan, Yaron Barziv, Pascal-André Vendittoli EFORT Open Rev. 2021 Oct 19;6(10):881-891. doi: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.210042. eCollection 2021 Oct.
The Kinematic Alignment (KA) technique for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is an alternative surgical technique aiming to resurface knee articular surfaces.The restricted KA (rKA) technique for TKA applies boundaries to the KA technique in order to avoid reproducing extreme constitutional limb/knee anatomies.The vast majority of TKA cases are straightforward and can be performed with KA in a standard (unrestricted) fashion.There are some specific situations where performing KA TKA may be more challenging (complex KA TKA cases) and surgical technique adaptations should be included.To secure good clinical outcomes, complex KA TKA cases must be preoperatively recognized, and planned accordingly.The proposed classification system describes six specific issues that must be considered when aiming for a KA TKA implantation.Specific recommendations for each situation type should improve the reliability of the prosthetic implantation to the benefit of the patient.The proposed classification system could contribute to the adoption of a common language within our orthopaedic community that would ease inter-surgeon communication and could benefit the teaching of the KA technique. This proposed classification system is not exhaustive and will certainly be improved over time. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:881-891. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.210042.