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Category Antiviral
Catalog number BBF-05725
CAS 129428-69-9

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Megalomicins are a family of macrolide antibiotics produced by the soil bacterium Micromonospora megalomicea. They exhibit antiparasitic, antiviral and antibacterial activity, and are effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.


Antibiotic Activity Spectrum Parasites; Neoplastics (Tumor); Viruses; Gram-positive bacteria; Gram-negative bacteria

Reference Reading

1. Identification of domains within megalomicin and erythromycin polyketide synthase modules responsible for differences in polyketide production levels in Escherichia coli
Sumati Murli, Misty Piagentini, Robert McDaniel, C Richard Hutchinson Biochemistry. 2004 Dec 21;43(50):15884-90. doi: 10.1021/bi0489964.
The megalomicin and erythromycin polyketide synthases (PKSs) produce the same aglycon product, 6-deoxyerythronolide B (6-dEB). Both PKSs were examined in an Escherichia coli strain metabolically engineered to support complex polyketide biosynthesis. Production of 6-dEB in shake flask fermentations was undetectable by mass spectrometry in the strain expressing the megalomicin (Meg) PKS genes, whereas 31 mg/L 6-dEB was produced by the strain with the erythromycin (DEBS) PKS. The genes for each of the three subunits comprising the PKSs were expressed in different combinations from three compatible expression vectors (e.g., DEBS1, DEBS2, and MegA3) to identify two Meg PKS subunits, MegA1 and MegA3, which conferred lower 6-dEB titers than their DEBS counterparts. Comparison of protein expression levels and 6-dEB titers by engineered hybrid DEBS/Meg PKS genes further defined regions within modules 2 and 6 of MegA1 and MegA3, respectively, which limit protein expression and 6-dEB production in E. coli. Meg module 2 + TE (M2 + TE) and a hybrid DEBS M2/Meg M2 + TE protein were engineered and purified for in vitro comparisons with DEBS M2 + TE. The specific activity of the hybrid M2 + TE was approximately 16-fold lower than DEBS M2 + TE and only twice as high as the Meg M2 + TE enzyme in diketide elongation assays. Since the hybrid M2 worked comparably to DEBS M2 in vivo, this suggests that boosting subunit concentration could serve as a useful approach to overcome enzyme deficiencies in heterologous polyketide production.
2. TDP-L-megosamine biosynthesis pathway elucidation and megalomicin a production in Escherichia coli
Mariana Useglio, Salvador Peirú, Eduardo Rodríguez, Guillermo R Labadie, John R Carney, Hugo Gramajo Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010 Jun;76(12):3869-77. doi: 10.1128/AEM.03083-09. Epub 2010 Apr 23.
In vivo reconstitution of the TDP-l-megosamine pathway from the megalomicin gene cluster of Micromonospora megalomicea was accomplished by the heterologous expression of its biosynthetic genes in Escherichia coli. Mass spectrometric analysis of the TDP-sugar intermediates produced from operons containing different sets of genes showed that the production of TDP-l-megosamine from TDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-d-glucose requires only five biosynthetic steps, catalyzed by MegBVI, MegDII, MegDIII, MegDIV, and MegDV. Bioconversion studies demonstrated that the sugar transferase MegDI, along with the helper protein MegDVI, catalyzes the transfer of l-megosamine to either erythromycin C or erythromycin D, suggesting two possible routes for the production of megalomicin A. Analysis in vivo of the hydroxylation step by MegK indicated that erythromycin C is the intermediate of megalomicin A biosynthesis.
3. In vivo characterization of the dTDP-D-desosamine pathway of the megalomicin gene cluster from Micromonospora megalomicea
Eduardo Rodríguez, Salvador Peirú, John R Carney, Hugo Gramajo Microbiology (Reading). 2006 Mar;152(Pt 3):667-673. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.28680-0.
In vivo reconstitution of the dTDP-D-desosamine pathway of the megalomicin gene cluster from Micromonospora megalomicea was achieved by expression of the genes in Escherichia coli. LC/MS/MS analysis of the dTDP-sugar intermediates produced by operons containing different sets of genes showed that production of dTDP-D-desosamine from dtdp-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose requires only four biosynthetic steps, catalysed by MegCIV, MegCV, MegDII and MegDIII, and that MegCII is not involved. Instead, bioconversion studies demonstrated that MegCII is needed together with MegCIII to catalyse transfer of D-desosamine to 3-alpha-mycarosylerythronolide B.

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