Fermentation for Biofertilizers

As a leading CDMO, BOC Sciences provides custom services for the development and fermentation production of biofertilizers. We specialize in fermentation-related projects to meet the needs of our customers in agriculture and other industries.

What is Biofertilizers?

Biofertilizers are preparations consisting of live microbial cells, either a single strain or multiple strains, capable of mobilizing or increasing the nutrient supply in the soil. A variety of microorganisms, including beneficial bacteria and fungi, are used as biofertilizers because they successfully colonize the rhizosphere, root cortex, or inside the roots. Biofertilizers are the products of fermentation processes and consist of highly efficient soil microorganisms that improve plant growth and productivity by providing easily available nutrients. Biofertilizers are classified into different types such as nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, and other biofertilizers that promote plant growth through different mechanisms based on their function.

Classification of Biofertilizers

  • Nitrogen fixation

Nitrogen (N), an essential element for life, is mainly present in the atmosphere in the form of N2, which is not directly used by plants but only fixed by biological N2. Some microorganisms, known as diazotrophs, contain nitrogenase that convert atmospheric N2 into ammonia (NH3), which is readily absorbed by plants. Diazotroph biofertilizers include Rhizobium, Azospirilium, and blue-green algae.

  • Phosphate solubilization

Phosphorus (P) is one of the most important plant nutrients and is essential for major plant metabolic processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, molecular biosynthesis, energy transfer and signal transduction. Phosphorus is present in the soil in an insoluble form and cannot be used directly by plants. Soil microorganisms are able to convert insoluble soil phosphorus into plant-available forms such as H2PO4- and HPO42- through various solubilization and mineralization mechanisms. Phosphorus solubilizing microorganisms include Pseudomonas spp, Bacillus spp, Rhizobium spp, Aspergillus spp, Penicillium spp.

Fermentation Production of Biofertilizers

Solid fermentation and submerged fermentation are the two main types of fermentation that can be used to produce biofertilizers. Biofertilizer production is carried out by selecting effective microbial strains and culturing them using specific nutrient media to scale up the microorganisms in solid or liquid matrices. The fermentation process for the production of biofertilizers involves various technologies such as molecular biology, genetic engineering, metabolic engineering, and fermentation engineering. With the development of related technologies, it has become possible to produce biofertilizers with better efficiency, multiple functions and longer shelf life by fermentation, and biofertilizers with these advantages have the promise to replace chemical fertilizers.

Production of BiofertilizersFig. 1 Production of Biofertilizers

Advantages of Biofertilizers

  • Biofertilizers are effective in fixing nutrients in the soil.
  • Biofertilizers are living microorganisms, which can live symbiotically with plant roots.
  • Biofertilizers can safely convert complex organic substances into simple compounds that can be easily absorbed by plants.
  • Biofertilizer action lasts for a long time and leads to improved soil fertility.
  • Biofertilizer promotes the growth of shoots and roots of crops.
  • Biofertilizers with the ability to fix nitrogen and dissolve phosphorus or have a beneficial effect on crop production.
  • Biofertilizers benefit soil health and promote sustainability in agriculture.

Why Choose BOC Sciences?

  • Strains selection and screening
  • Strain improvement for biofertilizers production
  • High quality biofertilizers
  • Fermentation production process control of biofertilizers
  • Patented and proprietary manufacturing method
  • Lowest cost of production

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