Fermentation for Veterinary Vaccines

Efficient and safe veterinary vaccines play important roles in the veterinary products. With the increasing emphasis on food safety, the management of use of veterinary drug and the monitoring of veterinary drug residues are being strengthened in countries around the world. Vaccines are divided into live attenuated vaccines and recombinant vaccines, and different types of vaccines have different vaccine production methods such as cell culture. As scientists have improved their understanding of biology, the methods of producing vaccines have also progressed. In order to obtain safer and more immunogenic vaccines, modern vaccine development is now utilizing a range of new technologies to create more effective vaccines, including: viral vector production in animal cells, virus-like particles in yeast or insect cells, polysaccharides conjugated to carrier proteins, DNA plasmids produced in E. coli.

Schematic illustration of the live-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.Fig 1. Schematic illustration of the live-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. (Vivek P, C.; et al. 2021)

Culture Medium in the Veterinary Vaccines Fermentation

The development of culture media used for veterinary vaccine production aims to minimize the amount of serum without affecting the fermentation performance.

Streptococcal medium is a universal medium for streptococcal vaccine production. It can be used for the fermentation production of streptococcal vaccines such as Streptococcus suis type 2 (strain HA9801, strain 2-LT), type 7 (strain 7-YZ), live vaccine ST171 strain, Streptococcus suis, Streptococcus equi subspecies.

Pasteurella angustifolia medium is a universal medium for Pasteurella vaccine production, which can be used for the fermentation production of Pasteurella multocida vaccines such as pigs, poultry, rabbits and cattle.

Mycoplasma medium is a universal medium used for the production of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines. Mycoplasma culture medium contains fresh yeast extract dry powder enriched with growth factors.

Bacillus medium is a special medium for the production of Brucella A19 vaccine. The bacillus medium contains specific growth factors required for the growth of Brucella A19.

Production of Veterinary Vaccines by Fermentation

  • DNA Vaccines

DNA vaccines produce strong and long-lasting immune responses by inoculating plasmids containing genes for a particular protein antigens. Large-scale production of DNA plasmids by bacterial fermentation is relatively simple. In this case, polysaccharides are produced by fermentation, bound to carrier proteins, purified and finally combined to form the final veterinary vaccine formulation.

  • Virus-like Particles (VLPs) Vaccine

VLPs are viral structural proteins expressed in cells with natural conformational epitopes. VLPs have a repetitive antigenic structure that effectively stimulates cellular immunity. This kind of vaccines are made by inserting genes of viral antigens. A major VLP vaccine development includes a comprehensive fermentation monitoring frequent that requiring removal of samples, followed by centrifugation, cell disruption, and chromatography to partially purify the VLPs. Genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains containing genetic sequences encoding the antigen are fermented in a complex fermentation medium reconstituted. Then, the proteins were released into solution after cell disruption and detergent extraction. Finally, purified is completed by a series of physical and chemical methods, including fumed silica adsorption, hydrophobic interaction chromatography and several ultrafiltration steps. The purified proteins were treated with formaldehyde in potassium thiocyanate solution followed by co-precipitation.

Our Services

BOC Sciences provides fermentation CDMO service for veterinary vaccines. With advanced fermentation and purification technologies, our scientific team supports the development and large-scale production of recombinant proteins, as well as the fermentation production of plasmid DNA, to help our customers accelerate their vaccine programs.

Workflow of Our Service

Workflow of Our Service


  1. Vivek P, C.; et al. A Veterinary Vaccine for SARS-CoV-2: The First COVID-19 Vaccine for Animals. Vaccines. 2021. 9(6): 631.
  2. Baca-González, V.; et al. Are Vaccines the Solution for Methane Emissions from Ruminants? A Systematic Review. Vaccines. 2020. 8(3): 460.

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